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Hope We Meet Again
Hope We Meet Again
Jewish Pupils' Letters from Poland to Eretz Israel Between the Two World Wars
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This book deals with the cultural and emotional world of Jewish schoolchildren in the “Tarbut” school network in Poland between the two World Wars. It is based on a unique corpus of about 80 letters, written between 1934-1935 by 10-11-year-old fifth graders in the Tarbut school in the town of Nowi Dwόr in Poland to their beloved teacher who had immigrated to Eretz Israel – the place and destination they too dreamed about. In these letters – all composed in Hebrew – the children write about their class, their school, but also about themselves and their families. The pupils’ letters are analyzed in light of the educational practice of pen-pal culture which was developed in and encouraged by “Tarbut” schools, especially between pupils in the Diaspora and their cohorts in Palestine. The letters are also examined as ego-documents that reveal personal stories about the intimate and private world of children, their experiences, fears and hopes, their relationship with their teacher, their families and their friends. Studied as a corpus, they reflect the complexities of the educational experience in a Hebrew Zionist school in Poland. The uniqueness of this book is that it is attentive to children – not teenagers or adults – in their own voice and in real time, telling about their lives, and not from a place of retrospection or later memory. Sources that allow us to hear the authentic voice of a child in real time are very rare indeed. The letters, which were critically edited and published in full next to a clear photograph of the letter, are discussed from various perspectives including Jewish, Hebrew and Zionist education, the history and culture of the child, and the relationship between the Diaspora and Eretz Israel. The book also offers a short history of the influential, now almost forgotten, school network – Tarbut. Finally, the book presents a detailed history of one class in one town in Poland a few years before this world vanished.
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Ma'arag
Ma'arag
The Israel Annual of Psychoanalysis
11
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MA‘ARAG: The Israel Annual of Psychoanalysis is a democratic, refereed annual publication, evaluated and edited by academicians, intellectuals in related fields, and clinicians. The journal, dedicated to research in psychoanalytic theory, practice and criticism, is the fruit of the initiative and cooperation of the Sigmund Freud Center for the Study and Research in Psychoanalysis of the Hebrew University, the Israeli Association for Self Psychology and the Study of Subjectivity, Israel Society for Analytical Psychology, Israel Psychoanalytic Society, Clinical Division of the Israel Psychological Association, Israel Institute for Group Analysis, Israel Institute of Jungian Psychology, The Sigmund Freud Chair of Psychoanalysis of the Department of Psychology, The Hebrew University, Tel-Aviv Institute for Contemporary Psychoanalysis, The Winnicott Center in Israel and the New Israeli Jungian Association. From this issue: Itamar Levi | REFLECTIONS ON THE DREAM DISCOURSE Yael Pilowsky Bankirer | THE MOTHER'S NAME OF THE FATHER: ON NAMES AND SUBJECTIVITY Ravit Raufman | SIDE BY SIDE: RELATIONAL PERSPECTIVE ON WORKING WITH DREAMS USING EARLY PSYCHOLINGUISTIC FREUDIAN IDEAS Lital Pelleg | THE RAVAGE WREAKED BY LOVE: SEXUAL TRAUMA FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF LACANIAN JOUISSANCE Michael Sidi-Levi | FROM EARLY META-PSYCHOLOGY TO THE WIDENING OF THE LIBIDO CONCEPT: THOUGHTS ABOUT “ROBBING” AND BINDING Shani Samai-Moskovich | CROSSING THRESHOLDS OF INTENSITY IN THE AREA OF CREATION Shlomit Cohen | INTERIORITY AND INTERNALIZATION: A SKETCH OF A BASIC PROCESS
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The Rebellion of the Daughters
The Rebellion of the Daughters
Jewish Women Runaways in Habsburg Galicia
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The Rebellion of the Daughters reveals for the first time the phenomenon of young Jewish women from Orthodox families escaping their homes in Krakow and its surroundings at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. In extreme cases, hundreds of these young women sought refuge in a convent in Krakow and converted to Catholicism there, and in other cases they sought to exercise their right to higher education, including at a university that recently opened its doors to women. The book relies on an abundance of archival documents, including police and court investigations, correspondence and memos of government ministries as well as personal letters, press reports and literary works, including the well-known story "Tehila" by S.Y. Agnon. Through all of these, the stories of three of the young women who run away are reconstructed and the background to their escape is revealed, the struggle of their families in trying to bring them back to their home, and the stormy discussions that the phenomenon of the Rebellious girls provoked in Jewish society in its various guises. The last part of the book describes how the crisis of rebellious girls later motivated Sarah Schnirer, a young woman from Krakow, to establish an afternoon school for girls, an institution that provided girls with religious education in a formal framework and later developed into the Beit Ya'akov educational chain.
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Did Zionism Wish to Establish a Nation-State?
Did Zionism Wish to Establish a Nation-State?
The Zionist Political Imagination from Pinsker to Ben-Gurion (1882-1948)
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According to the conventional understanding, the ultimate goal of Zionism as a national political movement was the establishment of a nation-state. In his new book on the history of the Zionist political imagination from the beginning of the idea of modern Zionism to the establishment of the State of Israel, Dimitri Shomsky challenges a deterministic view by examining unknown writings by the founding fathers of Zionism and by re-examining the known sources, which were interpreted in a tendentious and ahistorical way in the classical literature on Zionism. The author reveals that the leaders of Zionism envisioned the realization of Jewish self-determination in the Land of Israel within a multinational framework. First, they envisioned an autonomous province in the multinational Ottoman Empire, and then - during the British Mandate - a multinational democracy. The book shows that the models of a Jewish state, which were established and developed by the founding fathers of the State of Israel, included recognition of a collective national existence of the Arabs of the Land of Israel. Such political patterns were not the property of marginal figures among Zionists (such as the "Brit Shalom" people), but on the contrary, were presented by the most mainstream Zionists: Yehuda Leib Pinsker, Benjamin Ze'ev Herzl, Ahad Ha'am, Ze'ev Jabotinsky and David Ben-Gurion. The book focuses on these five figures and presents them and their views in an innovative way, which is known to have an impact on contemporary Israeli discourse.
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Iyyun 72
Iyyun 72
The Jerusalem Journal of Philosophy
72
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The "Possibility of Dialogue" issue was originally designed as a tribute to the dialogic philosophy of Martin Buber on the centenary of his groundbreaking book I and Thou ( Ich und Du 1923). Since the planning of the issue, Israeli society has gone through dramatic upheavals, and most recently, on October 7th, a brutal massacre of many Israeli citizens by Hamas, followed by a bitter war whose end is still not in sight. The 72 issue (Fall 2023) of Iyyun is now published in a painful, violent and bloody country. At a time when the possibilities of dialogue have collapsed and disappeared almost entirely from the public sphere, the necessity of philosophical discussion is essential and urgent. The title "Possibility of Dialogue" reminds us that the existence of dialogue is not a matter of course. Dialogue is a type of human possibility, a certain form of conduct - of speaking and listening, of living together - in the linguistic space, which can be realized in different contexts and in different ways; However, there is no necessity for its realization. The fact that through the common language we communicate with others, say things, convey messages, achieve achievements, is not a sufficient condition for the realization of the dialogical possibility. But, if communicative success is not the criterion for dialogue, what is its meaning? How do we approach this inquiry? A subscription can be purchesed through this link or use the online form .
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Armenian Manuscripts of the David and Jemima Jeselsohn Collection
Armenian Manuscripts of the David and Jemima Jeselsohn Collection
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Armenian Manuscripts of the David and Jemima Jeselsohn Collection is devoted to the five Armenian codices in the Jeselsohn collection in Zurich. Of great importance for Armenian studies and the history of art more generally, they represent various literary types, including biblical, hagiographic, homiletic, and liturgical texts. They also reflect an array of visual and artisanal traditions, connected to artistic centres in the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, Constantinople, and New Julfa, and span a period of over 300 years. A newly identified Sargis Picak manuscript is of exceptional importance for the study of medieval Armenian art, for its images, for Sargis’ colophons, and for a a hitherto unstudied ivory plaque of the Transfiguration. A Ritual of 1586 holds particular importance for scholars of the Armenian liturgy and its development in sixteenth-century Jerusalem. Also presented is a beautiful parchment leaf of the opening of the Gospel of John, studied and published previously by Michael and Nira Stone, and likely originating from a Bible produced in seventeenth-century New Julfa. Two Gospel Books complete this study: one from New Julfa, dated to 1695, and another likely produced in late seventeenth or early eighteenth-century Constantinople. This book was initiated and supported by David Jeselsohn, avid and longtime collector of archaeological artifacts, manuscripts, and Judaica. It was written jointly by Michael Stone and Christina Maranci. Maranci is an art historian and Stone is a specialist in Armenian philology, palaeography and codicology. Maranci bears primary responsibility for research on the miniatures – their art-historical analysis and iconography as well as their attribution, date, and context. Stone contributed the textual, codicological and palaeographical research, including translation of the colophons from the Classical Armenian (Grabar) into English, and catalogued the contents of all five manuscripts.
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A Convert’s Tale
A Convert’s Tale
Art, Crime, and Jewish Apostasy in Renaissance Italy
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In 1491 the renowned goldsmith Salomone da Sesso converted to Catholicism. Born to a Jewish family in Florence, Salomone later settled in Ferrara, where he was regarded as a virtuoso artist. But rumors circulated about Salomone’s behavior, scandalizing the Mantuan Jewish community, who turned him over to the civil authorities. Salomone was condemned to death for sodomy but agreed to renounce Judaism to save his life. He was baptized, taking the name Ercole “de’ Fedeli” (“One of the Faithful”). Drawing on newly discovered archival sources, Tamar Herzig traces the dramatic story of his life, half a century before ecclesiastical authorities made Jewish conversion a priority of the Catholic Church. The book explores the Jewish world in which Salomone was raised; the glittering objects he crafted, and their status as courtly hallmarks; and Ercole’s relations with his wealthy patrons. Herzig also examines the response of Jewish communities and Christian authorities to allegations of sexual crimes, and attitudes toward homosexual acts among Christians and Jews. In Salomone/Ercole’s story we see how precarious life was for converts from Judaism, and how contested was the meaning of conversion for both the apostates’ former coreligionists and those tasked with welcoming them to their new faith.
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The Evolution of Medical Practice
The Evolution of Medical Practice
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In the second half of the twentieth century, the medical community adopted the scientific method as a basis for practice. It seemed that after thousands of years the way was paved for a regulated process: from the laboratory through the clinical trial to the patient's bed. But it soon became clear that the road is neither straight nor continuous. Clinical research only offers unequivocal answers in a few cases. The balance between benefit and risk does not end with a statistical calculation; A significant part of the consideration of the factors that determine the change of medical practice is based on values, worldview and interests. Many factors are involved in the path leading from the laboratory to the patient: scientists, doctors, pharmaceutical and technology companies, politicians, regulators, and at the end of the path stand the patients themselves. Each of these factors uses the means at its disposal to influence the final result - the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the patient. The path of progress from the laboratory to the patient is also not continuous: sometimes the intervals between steps are large, sometimes sudden jumps occur after a prolonged period of slowing down and even stopping. Scientific and clinical research depends on the initiative, skills and determination of the researchers, and not a little on coincidences and has no fixed timetables. This book is dedicated to revealing the evolution of medical practice, to identifying fundamental changes in practice and to describing the winding way in which they were accepted and assimilated into the body of medical knowledge and the mutual relationship between the doctor and the patient.
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Fethullah Gūlen
Fethullah Gūlen
The Unsolved Enigma
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This book delves into the narrative of Fethullah Gülen and his movement, which essentially encapsulates the broader story of Turkey. The book explores the origins of this movement that undeniably left an unprecedented impact on Turkey, surpassing the influence of any preceding religious movement. This movement, centered around the figure of Gülen, born in 1938, gained prominence mainly during the 1990s when it unfurled its banner of inter-religious tolerance. Gülen actively advocated for the establishment of a global network of schools and even universities, aiming to cultivate a new generation of devout Muslims who were educated and inclined towards Western ideals. By the late 1990s, Gülen's health issues led him to relocate to the United States, ostensibly. With the ascent of the AKP party to power, connections burgeoned between the movement's members and the party, particularly its leader Erdoğan. This mutually beneficial relationship faced turbulence at the onset of the second decade of the 2000s, culminating in the attempted religious coup in 2016, during which Gülen and his movement were accused. Subsequently, Gülen emerged as the foremost adversary of Turkey, rendering his return to the country implausible.This book illuminates the intricacies of the Gülenist movement and endeavors to unravel the persona of its leader. The text delves into the origins of the Gülenist movement, its underlying ideology, and its enduring significance within Turkey. By employing comprehensive research techniques and utilizing archival materials in various languages Dr. Aviv provides insight in an objective as possible way into the dynamic interplay between religion and state in Turkey, as well as the ascent and decline of religious movements within the nation.
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Italia
Italia
22
Edited by:
Hebrew and Italian contents: אפרים חמיאל - שד"ל על הקבלה התאוסופית: בדיה מזיקה בכוונה רצויה אורלית קולודוני - תולדות המסירה ודרכי ההגהה של נוסח האותיות שבתורה במצחפים ובתיקוני סופרים איטלקיים בימי הביניים Giorgio Chotiner - Che cosa indica il termine Ashkenazita? Dario Burgaretta - Tracce della Scuola talmudica franco-renana a Noto antica. Un formulario di get del XV secolo glossato ad usum Notarii Sarah Parenzo - Agorafobia. Istersmo d'angoscia: identita sul confine. Edoardo Weiss el'introduzione della psicoanalsi in Italia anni Venti Periodical for research in the history, culture, and literature of the Jews of Italy. Whoever is dealing with Jewish thought and humanities knows well how important and influential the Italian Jews were and are in these wide ranges of fields. The large creation and thought of the Italian Jews was passed on for multi generations in Hebrew and Italian while keeping a firm methodical tradition which ITALIA periodical is following and keeping the importance of studying and researching the language, literature, culture and history of Italy and Italian Jews. Italian Jews had a strong presence in the European culture from the 13th century on to our current time. Documents, manuscripts and many books show us many remarkable authors and thinkers, Italian Jews and others, that had strong ties with the rather small ethnicity of Italian Jews. Even though there are many respected studies on the contributions of Italian Jews to the cultural making of the Italian nation, there is still a necessary need for a centralized publication of these past and new studies. ITALIA is an important focus point for an academic discussion on the culture, literature, history and language of Italian Jews as well as a place where we can weight the conclusions of these studies and place goals for future doing in these exciting full of aspects fields. Italia – Studi e Ricerche sulla cultura e sulla letteratura degli Ebrei d'Italia Studi e Ricerche Sulla Storia, la Cultura e la Letteratura Degli Ebrei d’Italia Dario Burgaretta Sicilia conservata a Messina Alessandro Guetta universale : forme del pensiero ebraico in Italia tra ‘500 e ‘700 ITALIA è la Rivista di letteratura e cultura, di filologia e linguistica, di storia e d 'arte sull' Ebraismo italiano, pubblicata dalla Casa Editrice Magnes, dell'Università ebraica di Gerusalemme. Agli esperti di studi ebraici post-biblici e di studi umanistici, filosofici e storici in genere accade di imbattarsi in una fitta rete di interessi scientifici in cui gli ebrei italiani compaiono, ora in modo preponderante ora marginalmente e di scorcio. La presenza costante dell' Ebraismo italiano nel panorama culturale europeo ha le sue origine lontano nel tempo. Ed è quasi una norma che manoscritti, editiones principes, libri antichi e moderni abbiano avuto e continuino ad avere attinenza, in maniera diretta o indiretta, col piccolo nucleo ebraico della penisola. La Rivista Italia vuole essere il luogo di incontro per studiosi ed esperti interessati a pubblicare ricerche originali che trattino ed esplorino le ancora molte 'terre incognite' dell'ebraismo italiano, in tutti i momenti della sua storia. Italia si propone di ampliare il suo raggio di influenza e il suo ruolo guida nella ricerca scientifica sull'Ebraismo italiano in Israele e nel mondo. La Rivista esce una volta all'anno con articoli in ebraico, italiano, inglese e francese. È possibile ordinare i numeri arretrati della Rivista Italia (20 volumi pubblicati) presso la Mangnes University Press di Gerusalemme.
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Korot
Korot
Infectious Diseases and Epidemics in the Land of Israel
21
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The production of this issue of Korot has marked the completion of a lengthy program of study in aspects of infectious diseases in the Holy Land over the past century or so. My own studies in the management of trachoma by the Yishuv during the British Mandate illustrated many of the features which characterized the Zionist movement of the period. These included the sense of community care and of nation building and the concern to create a new society. For some years there had been plans to bring together the research conducted by various Israeli academics working in a range of university settings on aspects of infectious diseases into one printed forum. Therefore, this issue of Korot represents the fruits of many areas of study into many different diseases as they have affected the population of the Land of Israel, with an introduction by Nadav Davidovich and Rakefet Zalashik, who have long shared my determination that this collection of essays should be published within a single volume, which sets the scene for the essays which are included here. Korot has long had a reputation for stimulating research into many aspects of the Jews and medicine, and I have relished the opportunity afforded to me to work in Jerusalem as an active member of the Editorial Board in close conjunction with Professor Samuel Kottek and with Dr. Helena Paavilainen. Medical history in Israel continues to flourish in a number of different settings, and research continues in many contemporary fields, whether it relates to social aspects of health and disease, medicine and the Holocaust, or as we portray here, to the wider impact of infectious diseases on the land and its peoples. Having a special collection of essays in this issue is an occasion of significance for the study of medical history in Israel, and it underlines the importance of this journal in showcasing the best of Israeli studies in the history of medicine. This theme of infectious diseases is also represented in this issue by a collection of essays resulting from a Symposium entitled “A Leper is Like a Dead Person,” which was held at the Van Leer Institute on June 2, 2010. The meeting was sponsored by the School of Pharmacy, Hebrew University (Ein Karem campus) and by the National Center for Hansen’s Disease at Hadassah Hospital. Organized by Dr. Yisraela Nili, it brought together many different aspects of this enigmatic medical and sociological phenomenon from ancient times to modern Israel. As the editor of Vesalius: the Journal of the International Society for the History of Medicine I have had a first-hand opportunity to see the vitality of medical history studies around the world. Israeli researchers have taken a prominent role on the world stage whether in the Congresses and Meetings of the International Society or in the submitted articles to Vesalius. Professor Samuel Kottek has long been an honored figure in the International Society, and Professor Shifra Shvarts is the Society’s Business Manager. It was interesting to see at the recent International Society Congress in Padua/Abano the continuing presence of Jewish historical issues, from the enduring presence of Jewish medical students to the role of the converso physician. While there may be no independent entity of “Jewish medicine,” the confluence of the Jews and medicine remains an area of fascination which retains the power to excite, to instruct, and for us all to learn and to share. Thus, the Editorial Board of Korot is always open to original contributions and communications on the history of Jews and medicine, medicine in Jewish sources as well as medical history topics relating to Israel. Dr. Kenneth Collins, Guest Editor
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The Liturgical Poems of Rabbi Pinhas Ha-Cohen
The Liturgical Poems of Rabbi Pinhas Ha-Cohen
Critical Edition Introduction and Commentaries By Shulamit Elizur
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This book presents Piyyutim (liturgical poetry) written by one of the most important poets in the land of Israel, Rabbi Pinhas Hacohen birabi Yaacov, who lived in the area of Tiberias in the 8th century. The Piyyutim are taken from manuscripts of the Cairo Genizah, and are published for the first time. R' Pinhas seals the classic period of early Paytanim (authors of liturgical poetry) in the land of Israel. His work preserves the variety of genres typical for classic Piyyutim, yet shows early signs of developments characteristic to late Eastern liturgical poetry. R' Pinhas' Piyyutim reveal a great poet with impressive compositional durability. In some of them he reaches unique climaxes, especially through dramatic developments in the Piyut. The Piyyutim presented in the book are accompanied by textual variants and detailed commentary. Comprehensive introductions to the poems discuss the poet and his works, their designations and references, patterns, their literary language, content, literary sources, as well as early customs that can be learned from them. The discussion brings up Hebrew words that have not been written before. Many long-forgotten Midrashim are exposed and authentic Halakhic customs from the Land of Israel are revealed, such as the calculation of the Hebrew calendar and early fasting traditions. First and foremost, this collection of Rabbi Pinhas' Piyyutim brings back one of the greatest poets of Israel to Hebrew literature and allows the readers to enjoy his rich poetry again. Edited and commented by Shulamit Elizur
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Literacy and Language
Literacy and Language
Relationship, Bilingualism and Difficulties
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One measure of the economic and cultural strength of a country is the level of its citizens' literacy since literacy is important for integration in the occupational and social world. In Israel, about one-third of the students exhibit literacy difficulties. Furthermore, literacy level gaps between the upper and the lower percentile are among the largest of 43 OECD countries. Israeli children, therefore, need support in literacy acquisition. Several public committees have discussed ways supporting education on these issues, basing their conclusion on current research. However, only two Hebrew books were published on the subject since the 1990's. This book attempts to address this scarcity. The book focuses on learners' literacy development and includes suggestions for intervention programs for supporting the literacy of children. It presents recent studies and programs of the best Israeli researchers on mono and bilingual learners, on children with normal development and those with special needs. This book is suitable for policy makers, psychologists, school teachers, kindergarten teachers, educational counselors, language and learning diagnosticians and therapists, teachers for reading rehabilitation, university, and college researchers, teachers and students. This book was written in honor of Prof. Iris Levin's (Tel Aviv University, Israel) retirement. Prof. Levin is a renowned and influential researcher, has studied early literacy for over 35 years, and has published in leading journals. She is among the leaders of the early literacy policy in Israel. The editors of the book, Dr. Dorit Aram and Dr. Ofra Korat, were Prof. Levin's students and are now her colleagues.
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Human, All Too Human
Human, All Too Human
A Book for Free Spirits
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The book breaks with Nietzsche's previous essay style (as in The Birth of Tragedy). It is a collection of aphorisms, largely concerned with human psychology. He criticizes social Darwinism in it: Wherever progress is to ensue, deviating natures are of greatest importance. Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening. The strongest natures retain the type, the weaker ones help to advance it. Something similar also happens in the individual. There is rarely a degeneration, a truncation, or even a vice or any physical or moral loss without an advantage somewhere else. In a warlike and restless clan, for example, the sicklier man may have occasion to be alone, and may therefore become quieter and wiser; the one-eyed man will have one eye the stronger; the blind man will see deeper inwardly, and certainly hear better. To this extent, the famous theory of the survival of the fittest does not seem to me to be the only viewpoint from which to explain the progress of strengthening of a man or of a race.§224 Nietzsche also distinguishes in this work the obscurantism of the metaphysicians and theologians from the more subtle obscurantism of Kant's critical philosophy and modern philosophical skepticism, claiming that obscurantism is that which obscures existence rather than obscures ideas alone: "The essential element in the black art of obscurantism is not that it wants to darken individual understanding but that it wants to blacken our picture of the world, and darken our idea of existence" (Vol. II, Part 1, 27).
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Perspectives
Perspectives
Malraux Et Ses Harmoniques Juives
19
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Quelle place occupèrent les juifs dans la pensée, la vie de Malraux ? Cette question qui est au centre de cette nouvelle livraisonde Perspectives reçoit des réponses nuancées. Celles-là mêmes qui animèrent le débat qui s’instaura au cours du colloque « Malraux et ses harmoniques juives » (Université hébraïque de Jérusalem, 31 octobre et 1er novembre 2010) et dont Perspectives recueille ici la plupart des contributions. On a veillé, en outre, à faire sa place à l’art et en particulier à l’amitié entre Malraux et Chagall (Saint-Cheron). SOMMAIRE Présentation........................................................................... 5 Ouverture............................................................................. 11 BERNARD-HENRI LÉVY Ce juif de Malraux.................................................................13 Malraux et Israël : peuple, histoire, État GEORGES ELIA SARFATI André Malraux et la renaissance nationale du peuple juif.... 45 DENIS CHARBIT Le sionisme de Malraux: une dernière “illusion lyrique”?....71 MICHAËL DE SAINT-CHERON Sartre et Malraux face à l’Alliance Israélite universelle....... 87 Quelle problématique juive chez Malraux ? MICHAËL DE SAINT-CHERON ET ANNETTE WIEVIORKA Y a-t-il une problématique juive chez Malraux ?............... 101 CYRIL ASLANOV L’intérêt de Malraux pour les juifs : une lubie romantique ?.........................................................123 THIERRY ALCOLOUMBRE Un dialogue d’universels : Malraux et les penseurs du retour à Sion. L’exemple du Rav Kook............................... 143 L’indicible rapport aux camps MICHAËL DE SAINT-CHERON André Malraux et l’holocauste............................................ 181 CHARLOTTE WARDI A propos d’une rencontre avec André Malraux...................195 Une vie confrontée au destin juif JANINE MOSSUZ-LAVAU Malraux et le mythe juif...................................................... 209 CLAUDE PILLET Israël autrement qu’absent dans les mémoires de Malraux...........................................................................217 MICHAËL DE SAINT- CHERON L’amitié entre Malraux et Chagall.......................................243 NURIT LÉVY Dire le génocide : des Antimémoires de Malraux à l’autofiction de Doubrovsky................................................ 255
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Walking in Someone Else’s Shoes
Walking in Someone Else’s Shoes
Empathy in History, Society, and Culture
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Empathy is often conceptualized as the experience of walking in someone else’s shoes. This experience comprises of a cognitive aspect – the ability to identify, understand and adopt the perspective of another, and an affective aspect – sharing the emotions of others, while remaining distinct. Empathy has been widely recognized as central to cognitive and social development, and a key to nurturing interpersonal relationships and encouraging pro-social action. But empathy has drawbacks as well: Its boundaries, limitations and even potential damage have also been recognized and investigated. The articles in this book take multiple perspectives to studying empathy. They discuss how empathy is developed and how it is bounded, and focus on both its positive and negative implications. The articles in the first part of the book take a social sciences perspective to empathy. They define empathy, describe its development from very early age and throughout the life-span, and examine how it affects intra-personal, interpersonal and social processes. The second part of the book discusses the role of empathy in the humanities. The articles in this part address empathy in history, literature and the arts. Together, the articles in this book point to the vast scope of empathy as a phenomenon in both the social sciences and the humanities.
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On Chariots with Horses of Fire and Iron
On Chariots with Horses of Fire and Iron
The Excursionists and the Narrow Gauge Railroad from Jaffa to Jerusalem
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This book deals with the arrival of modernity in the Holy Land in the form of the 86 km Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway. Befitting the completion of such a substantial undertaking, the inauguration, in September 1892, was a grand affair, attended by representatives of the Ottoman Empire, consuls, religious leaders, and foreign delegations. The tracks approached Jerusalem from the southwest through the Judean Mountains, taking advantage of the deep, winding river bed of the Soreq Valley. This afforded the least steep route, though even then the grades were a challenge for the locomotives. Since the tracks were of narrow meter-gauge they could easily follow the natural contours of the land on the ascent to Jerusalem, the highest point, at about 700 meters above sea level. . The railroad was the largest civil engineering project ever undertaken in the modern Holy Land. It was built to exploit the tremendous growth of pilgrim traffic and tourism during the second half of the nineteenth century. Though several proposals had been put forward since the 1850s, it was only in the 1880s that two young Jewish entrepreneurs, Joseph Navon of Jerusalem and Joseph Amzalak of Jaffa, backed by the Protestant banker Johannes Frutiger, were enabled to take the first steps leading to the acquisition of a license from the Ottoman government for laying down the iron rails. Unable to raise sufficient capital in Europe, Navon sold the license to a group of Catholic businessmen in Paris, who established the Société du Chemin de Fer Ottoman de Jaffa à Jérusalem et Prolongements. When the first locomotive was tested on a short length of track at Jaffa half the population turned up to witness the event, such was the novelty of the sight and sounds of the horse of fire and iron. Despite difficulties due to the low cost of construction and poor traffic during the early years, the railroad opened up Jerusalem to modern tourism, brought greater numbers of pilgrims, and contributed to the growth of the city. It also delivered fresh water in times of drought. This is the most thoroughly researched publication ever to appear on the first railroad in the Holy Land. Moreover, it relies extensively on the one resource that best captures the spirit of the Jaffa-Jerusalem Railway: magnificent photographs, mainly taken between 1891 and 1914. These early photographs, gathered from archives in Israel, the United States, England and Germany, are supplemented with those taken by British forces from December 1917 on, from Israel, Australia and England, and a number of color images dating from the mid-1980s. Details of locomotives and rolling stock, maps, tables of statistics, track plans, extensive notes, a bibliography, and index are included. The intended audiences, apart from general readers and railway enthusiasts, are historical geographers, historians of the Holy Land in modern times, and transport and tourism historians.
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Israel's Relations with the East European States
Israel's Relations with the East European States
From Disruption in 1967 to Resumption in 1989-1991
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In the Years 1989-1991 Israel renewed its diplomatic relations with the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland and Czechoslovakia, relations which were severed subsequent to the Six- day- war. Albania was added to the above, with which Israel established diplomatic relations for the first time. In these years Israel's representatives held talks with envoys from East Germany towards establishing diplomatic relations. This was never fulfilled due to East Germany's refusal to recognize its part in paying restitutions to Israel for its part in the persecution of Jews during the Nazi rule and due to the approaching German reunification process. The Author, who served in those years as Deputy Director General of Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in charge of East and Central Europe, and who took part in these processes, documents, for the first time, the chain of contacts between Israel and the countries of East-Central Europe (except for the USSR) which lead up to renewing diplomatic relations between them. The book also deals with their hostile policies towards Israel in the international and Middle Eastern arena, Anti-Semitism against the Jewish minority living among them, and the status of the Jewish Communities in these countries during the break in Diplomatic relations and in the time that followed. The Political and Economic motivations of each of these countries to improve relations with Israel are also dealt with from the mid-eighties of the previous century towards a gradual renewal of diplomatic relations together with their liberation from their dependence on the USSR and their transition from their Communist regime to a liberal one.
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The Few Against the Many?
The Few Against the Many?
Studies on the Balance of Forces in the Battles of Judas Maccabaeus and Israel's War of Independence
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What was the balance of power in the battles of Judas Maccabaeus and in Israel's War of Independence? Were they, as is commonly assumed, wars of the few against the many? These questions were discussed in a conference organized by the School of History of the Hebrew University in December 1999. The participants were in general agreement that the discussion of the balance of power must not be confined to the number of troops and that other variables must be taken into account. Nevertheless the numbers of troops is important. Conflicting views were presented on the battles of Judas Maccabaues whereas on the number of troops in Israel's War of Independence there was general agreement. Published in this collection, for the first time, are a General Staff document from 1952 and a research paper by Yehosuha Ben Arie for the IDF History Branch from 1955. Both conclude that in the matter of the number of troops the War of Independence on the whole was not an instance of the few against the many. Other articles, based on lectures delivered at the conference include Bezalel Bar Kochva and Israel Shatzman on the battles of Judas Maccabaeus; Beni Morris and Amitzur Ilan on the balance of forces in the War of Independence, Eyal Nave and Mordechai Bar-On on the evolution of Israeli collective memory of the balance of power and on possible ways of representing the facts of the case in school books; Shmaryahu Ben-Pazi, Moshe Erenwald and Nimrod Hagiladi on three case studies: Safad, The Jewish Quarter in the Old City of Jerusalem, and Rechovot; and Joseph Heller's essay on the centrality of the 'few against many' theme in David Ben Gurion's thought which widens the scope of the discussion in the conference.
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Judezmo
Judezmo
An Introduction to the Language of the Sephardic Jews of the Ottoman Empire
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Judezmo — the language also known as Ladino, Spanyolit, and Judeo-Spanish — is a Jewish language composed of Romance, Hebrew-Aramaic and Arabic, and Balkan elements, which arose in medieval Spain and evolved after the Expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, primarily in the Ottoman Empire. The present book is a comprehensive, university-level Hebrew-language introduction to Judezmo, as written in the traditional Rashi alphabet. It includes a structural and sociolinguistic overview of the language and the literature created in it from the Middle Ages through the modern era, a rich anthology of reading selections, linguistic analysis, exercises to reinforce the active acquisition of the language, a detailed chart of the verbal system, and a bilingual dictionary. The reading selections, presented in order of difficulty, were taken from the modern Judezmo literature and press of the past 200 years, and from the rich Judezmo oral literature — including proverbs and sayings, folk songs and ballads, stories, jokes and riddles. The reading selections introduce the reader to the captivating cultural and social world of the Judezmo-speaking Sephardim in the modern era. The linguistic analysis includes a description of the Judezmo sound system, the Hebrew-letter and Roman-letter writing systems used to transcribe it, and a morphological and syntactic analysis of the linguistic structures appearing in the reading selections, designed to provide the reader with a thorough introduction to modern Judezmo in its diverse regional and stylistic forms. The book is meant for individual study as well as group use, and assumes no prior knowledge of any language except Hebrew.
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Reflections on my Mission as Israel’s Ambassador
Reflections on my Mission as Israel’s Ambassador
To Austria, Slovenia and Slovakia August 1993 - December 1995
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Dr. Yosef Govrin joined Israel's Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1953 and during his 42 years of diplomatic service he served in many functions in Israel and abroad, inter alia: Ambassador to Romania, Deputy Director General of the Foreign Ministry, and Ambassador to Austria, Slovenia, Slovakia and to the UNO in Vienna. These Reflections are based on the author's activities in developing relations with these three states in substance and in quantity, his discussions with the heads of these states and their discussions with their Israeli counterparts, surveying their internal and external policies, describing the local Jewish communities and the activities to foster relations with them and to strengthen their national s tatus. These reflections have a documentary nature and constitute a unique and important source for research regarding the history of Israel's relations with Austria, Slovenia and Slovakia from the beginning of the 1990s, characterized by the end of the Cold War, following such historic events as the dismemberment of the Soviet Union, the collapse of the communist regimes in Eastern Europe, the end of the presidency of Austria's Kurt Waldheim, when he was "persona non grata" in many parts of the world, including Israel, as well as the signing of the Oslo Agreements, known as the Declaration of Principles between Israel and the PLO.
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Uncovering the Canon
Uncovering the Canon
Studies in Canonicity and Genizah
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Table of Contents Introduction Robert Brody — Canon: An Elusive Concept Sarah Stroumsa — Whose Canon? A Reconstruction of the Philosophical Horizon of Jews in the Middle Ages Moshe Lavee — Haggadic Midrash in the Genizah, as Reflected in the Book Lists of Rav Yosef Rosh Haseder Miriam Fraenkel — Literary Canon and Social Elite in the Geniza Society Daniel Stoekl: Canonization as a Non-Linear Process. What the Christian (and Jewish) Papyri from Egypt Reveal about the Process of Canonization Menahem Ben-Sasson — Maimonides’ Mishneh Torah: Towards Canon Formation in the Life of an Author Yehudah Zvi Stampfer — Writer’s Authority and Halakhic Canon in the Geonic Period Aharon Maman — To What Extent did Medieval Philological Works Survive? Three Case Studies Shulamit Elizur — Hebrew Poetry in the Cairo Genizah: Survival and Canonization of A-Canonical Texts Ze’ev Elkin — Sefer Ha-Galui Gabriela Cerra — Translation and the Canonization of Literary Texts – The Latin Translations of Aratos’ Phaenomena Donna Shalev — Protagoras and the Controversy over ‘First Inventor’ as a Canonical Founding Figure: Prw'toi EuJretaiv In Greek and Subsequent Culture Amia Lieblich — The Second Generation of Kfar Etzion − Collective Memory and the Canon Maya Benish-Weisman — Transformation and Preservation in Jewish Identity Characteristics of Immigrants from the Former USSR Yoel Regev — The Other Side of the Horse: Canon and Kabbalah: Narratives of Two Disintegrating Balance Mechanisms Christof Schmidt — Canon, Gnosis and Modernity − Hans Blumenberg's Legitimacy of the Modern Age Revisited
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Theoretical Hebrew Linguistics
Theoretical Hebrew Linguistics
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This collection deals with syntactic and semantic phenomena of the Hebrew language within the framework of theoretical linguistics. Most articles are within Noam Chomsky's framework of Generative Grammar and theories within formal semantics. The contributions are written by linguists specializing in theoretical linguistics and familiar with the Hebrew language and its uniqueness among the world's languages. The introductory chapter outlines in general terms the state of the art concerning the study of Hebrew in Israel, and highlights the significance of the theoretical approach in enriching the discourse on Hebrew linguistics as well as enabling easier access to theoretical studies. The introductory chapter is followed by two chapters describing and explaining the theoretical approach, illustrating the explanations from Hebrew. The next eleven chapters were chosen to deal with specific phenomena that are crucial in understanding the structure of Hebrew, on the one hand, and shedding light on the contribution of Hebrew to the general theory on the other hand: the verbal system, notably the binyanim; the marker et; and some issues concerning the tense system; the noun system; pronouns; adverbs; and prepositions. The last two chapters of the volume are each dedicated to a subfield of linguistics: language acquisition and neurolinguistics, respectively. One discusses two phenomena concerning Hebrew acquisition, and the other discusses the syntactic impairment in agrammatic aphasia phenomenon in Hebrew speakers. It is the only collection of its kind aimed at opening a channel of interaction between Hebraists interested in expanding the discourse on Hebrew and theoretical linguists interested in Hebrew.
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The Myth of the Jewish Origins of Science and Philosophy
The Myth of the Jewish Origins of Science and Philosophy
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The history of the myth of the Jewish sources of philosophy and science from their inception in Hellenistic culture, until present day, is laid out inthis book, the first comprehensive history of this fascinating subject. The Author follows the emergence and development of the myth, in Hellenistic-Pagan culture and in ancient Jewish culture, through the writings of the Church fathers, in Medieval Christian, Muslim and Jewish thought, throughout the Renaissance, the Early Modern period, the Enlightenment Era in both the general and Jewish cultures and up to present day. The book lays out the stories and traditions regarding the myth of the Jewish origins of philosophy and science, and explores their chain of transmission and acceptance throughout the generations in four different cultures: The Hellenistic-Pagan, Jewish, Christian and Muslim. The motives for the creation of these stories and traditions of this myth, as well as the reasons behind it, are all thoroughly discussed. Amongst them is the justification to study foreign wisdoms by Jewish scholars. Once it had been "proven" that the source of all philosophical and scientific knowledge lies in the Torah, their study became an inherent part of the study of the Torah, a re-appropriation of the knowledge that has been lost in the tribulations of time and exile. The myth also served Islam and Christianity as similar apologetic theological reasoning. Although various aspects of the myth have been criticized since the Renaissance, a phenomenon which reached its apex during the Jewish Enlightenment, it has never lost its power and is still expressed in a variety of ways in Jewish and Israeli Culture today.
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Medicine and Nazism
Medicine and Nazism
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This introductory book deals with the bonds created between German physicians and the Nazi biomedical vision based upon racial and eugenic conceptions. These ideological connections and the attitudes of many Nazi doctors, culminating in the actions of Mengele and other SS physicians in Auschwitz , may be described as a Medicalization of the Holocaust. In July 1933, the sterilization law was enacted. Under the pretext of war, the Nazi modus operandi was changed to medical murder. It strove to stop the spread of hereditary diseases by gassing to death sick people judged “unfit” to be included among “Aryan Germans”. Although officially abandoned in summer 1941, Hitler used the expertise gained by the medical murderers to design the “Final Solution”. Nazi physicians operated the first annihilation camps like Treblinka, while others initiated the process of Ghettoization, arguing that the Jews were spreading epidemics. The second part of this book depicts the courageous efforts of many Jewish doctors to resist annihilation. In many ghettos, Jewish doctors worked on behalf of the “Judenrat” to try keep people alive. A clandestine medical faculty functioning in the Warsaw ghetto was the pinnacle of Jewish intellectual resistance. Even in concentration camps, physicians attempted to sustain the basic creeds of medical ethics by protecting and saving patients. The last chapters of the book deal with the efforts to cope with the lessons of the Nazi misuse of medicine.
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Identity and Its Discontents
Identity and Its Discontents
On the European Great Jews and Their Tribute to Nietzsche
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Identity and Its Discontents is an intellectual, gothic journey, which explores and interprets for the readers the personal story and thought of fourteen "marginal Jews", Jewish intellectuals from a variety of disciplines who lived in Europe from the end of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. Jacob Golomb does a good job of describing the twisted Jewish-European identity of these spiritual giants in the face of the fractured European humanist ideal. The book is structured as a fabric created from the intersecting stories of key thinkers who left a singular intellectual mark on the twentieth century and the shaping of Jewish consciousness in it - from Kafka to Freud, from Bruno Schulz to Gensin, from Ahad Ha'am to Berdichevsky, from Herzl and Nordau to Martin Buber and Zeev Jabotinsky, and from Stefan Zweig to Primo Levi. The original key that Golomb offers to understanding the mechanisms of the identity construction of the "fringe Jews" is the attitude of these thinkers to the thought of Friedrich Nietzsche, and the ways in which this illuminates the question of identity politics and the internal struggle in modern Judaism between nationalism and universal humanism. Identity in Discomfort is the fruit of the author's many years of important research work on Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and their acception in Hebrew literature and thought. Prof. Hagi Kenaan
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Personal Choices
Personal Choices
The Story of a Collection. Photographs of Palestine, Eretz Israel
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This beautiful volume is the fruit of almost 40 years of collecting by Vivienne Silver-Brody, one of Israel's few photography collectors. She has written and edited a book, which narrates the shared history of photography in a land that in the last century has seen development alongside war and destruction, and that remains divided and conflicted by the two peoples that call it home. The text is accompanied by some 200 exquisite photographs from Silver-Brody’s collection, and includes a special section inspired by the 1983 volume published by the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, Personal Choice: A Celebration of Twentieth-Century Photographs . In this section, Silver-Brody invited some 60 writers – photographers, scholars, artists, curators, collectors, lovers of photography and others with a special connection to the land – from different religions, national and political tendencies, to choose a single photograph from her collection and to write a short essay relating to it. The result is a fascinating selection of texts that contributes to the overall narrative in the book. This book could speak to a diversified readership; those interested in photography and its history or in the Middle East and Israel / Palestine, especially in light of the ongoing conflict and public debate surrounding it around the world, and in light of the unique voice that attempts to reach beyond politics and religion, and to present a photographic history of the Land of Israel as a shared place rather than as disputed territory. Translated by Daphna Levy
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